In today’s edition of Geek School, we’re going to teach you how to use the registry editor, what some of those keys actually mean, and generally help you understand it a little better.
Over the years we’ve covered a lot of registry hacks, and while most people can handle the step-by-step instructions for how to make a registry change, or double-click a .reg file to insert it into the registry, you will be much better served having a solid knowledge of what the registry is and how it works.
The most important thing to know about the registry is that you probably shouldn’t just mess around and delete or change things for no reason. Deleting a big portion of the registry is never going to make your computer run faster, and there’s no registry hack that will speed up your computer or give you some major new functionality that doesn’t exist.
Almost all registry hacks involve either tweaking the behavior of some component in Windows, or disabling a behavior that you don’t like. For instance, if you want to disable SkyDrive / OneDrive from Windows entirely, you can use a registry hack to accomplish it. If you are tired of Windows Update forcibly rebooting your computer, you can hack the registry to make it stop.
What is the Registry?
The Windows Registry is a hierarchical database that contains all of the configurations and settings used by components, services, applications, and pretty much everything in Windows.
The registry has two basic concepts to be aware of: Keys and Values. Registry Keys are objects that are basically folders, and in the interface even look exactly like folders. Values are a bit like the files in the folders, and they contain the actual settings.
When you open the Registry Editor for the first time, you’ll see a tree view on the left-hand pane that contains all of the keys, with values on the right-hand side. It’s about as simple as an interface gets.
The root-level keys that you see in the left-hand side of the screenshot are important. Each one houses a different set of information, so depending on what you are trying to do, you’ll need to know which section to browse down into.
The interesting thing that most people don’t know is that three of the five items on the root level aren’t actually there… they are just linked to items further down in one of the other keys.
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Windows uses this section to manage file type associations, and it is usually abbreviated HKCR when being referenced in documentation. This key is actually just a link to HKLM\Software\Classes.
You can also use this section if you want to tweak the context menu for a particular file type.
Holds the user settings for the currently logged in user, and is usually abbreviated HKCU This is actually just a link to HKEY_USERS\<SID-FOR-CURRENT-USER>. The most important sub-key in here is HKCU\Software, which contains user-level settings for most of your software.
All of the system-wide settings are stored here, and it is usually abbreviated as HKLM. You’ll mostly use the HKLM\Software key to check machine-wide settings.
Stores all of the settings for all users on the system. You’ll typically use HKCU instead, but if you need to check settings for another user on your computer, you can use this one.
Stores all of the information about the current hardware configuration. This one isn’t used very often, and it just a link to HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Hardware Profiles\Current.
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Creating New Keys and Values
Right-clicking on any key in the left-hand side of the window will give you a set of options, most of which are fairly straightforward and easy to understand.
You can create a new Key, which will show up as a folder on the left-hand side, or a new value, which will show up on the right-hand side. Those values can be a little confusing, but there are really only a couple of values that are used regularly.
- String Value (REG_SZ) – This contains anything that will fit into a regular string. The vast majority of the time, you can edit human-readable strings without breaking everything.
- Binary Value (REG_BINARY) – This value contains arbitrary binary data, and you will almost never want to attempt to edit one of these keys.
- DWORD (32-bit) Value (REG_DWORD) – These are almost always used for a regular integer value, whether just 0 or 1, or a number from 0 to 4,294,967,295.
- QWORD (64-bit) Value (REG_QWORD) – These are not used very often for registry hacking purposes, but it’s basically a 64-bit integer value.
- Multi-String Value (REG_MULTI_SZ) – These values are fairly uncommon, but it works basically like a notepad window. You can type multi-line textual information into a field like this.
- Expandable String Value (REG_EXPAND_SZ) – These variables have a string that can contain environment variables and is often used for system paths. So a string might be %SystemDrive%\Windows and would expand to C:\Windows. This means that when you find a value in the Registry that is set to this type, you can change or insert environment variables and they will be “expanded” before the string is used.
Fun Fact: DWORD is short for “Double Word,” because a “Word” is a term for the default unit of data used by a processor, and when Windows was created that was 16 bits. So a “word” is 16 bits, and a “Double Word” is 32 bits. While modern processors are all 64-bit, the Registry still uses the older format for compatibility.